CBD Oil Side Effects On Kidneys

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Here's the information you need to understand CBD oil side effects on kidneys, backed up by the latest research – A helpful guide Why is CBD oil considered a possible treatment for kidney disease? In this post, we discuss what kidney disease is and how CBD oil may help in dealing with it. The side effects of CBD oil and the symptoms of chronic kidney disease show some similarities. But does CBD affect the kidneys? What does the research say?

CBD Oil Side Effects on Kidneys, Effects, Doses, a Guide

Can CBD oil be beneficial for your kidneys? And are there any CBD oil side effects on kidneys that you need to be aware of?

The non-psychoactive component of cannabis, which is often prepared as an oil (CBD oil), has recently been suggested as a potential treatment for many medical issues.

So, is there a link between CBD oil use and kidney damage? Or could CBD oil actually benefit overall kidney health?

CBD Oil Side Effects on Kidneys: Current research doesn’t point to any specific side effects on kidneys. As there is no official dose of CBD oil, it can be difficult to know if you are taking too much. More recent research indicates that CBD oil may benefit kidney health. However, more studies are necessary.

Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated a potential benefit of CBD use in chronic pain associated with multiple conditions.

However, some might question if CDB oil has side effects on the kidneys or if CDB is safe to use if you have kidney problems.

With this summary in mind, let’s begin by recapping exactly what CBD oil is, so we can better understand its effects on the kidneys.

What is CBD oil?

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a non-psychoactive compound found in hemp and marijuana. CBD is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified within the Cannabis plant.

Most CBD oil available is a mix of CBD and carrier oil.

These oils can be coconut oil or hemp seed oil. This bottled oil, sometimes referred to as a tincture, is sold in various concentrations.

CBD oil is also available as capsules, CBD gummies, and under-the-tongue CBD sprays.

The endocannabinoid system

CBD or ‘cannabidiol’ is a naturally occurring compound found in the cannabis plant. It is one of many cannabinoids present in the plant that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system.

So we can more easily understand if there are any CBD oil side effects on kidneys, we will discover more about the endocannabinoid system and how it works.

What is the endocannabinoid system?

The endocannabinoid system or ECS is a complex cell-signaling system identified in the early 1990s by researchers exploring THC.

Although much research has been carried out on the endocannabinoid system, it is still not fully understood.

However, what we do know is that it plays a pivotal role in regulating many processes and functions within our bodies which include:

  • Memory
  • Sleep
  • Mood
  • Reproduction and fertility
  • Metabolism
  • Liver function
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Responses of the immune system
  • Memory and learning
  • Appetite
  • Cardiovascular function
  • Formation of bones
  • Bone growth
  • Stress
  • Nerve and skin function
  • Motor control

It’s important to understand that the endocannabinoid system exists and is also active in your body even if you don’t use cannabis or cannabis products.

But how does this system relate to your kidneys? And what CBD oil side effects on kidneys could occur?

Effects of cannabinoids on the kidneys

As CBD oil connects with the endocannabinoid system in the body, it’s worth investigating how that might affect the kidneys.

According to research, while both CB1 and CB2 receptors are present in the kidneys, the endocannabinoid system’s (ECS) effects on the kidneys are not well understood.

Let’s explain if CBD oil has any general side effects so we can understand more about if it might affect the kidneys.

Does CBD oil have side effects?

Though CBD is generally well tolerated and considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.

Some side effects noted in some studies include

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Changes in appetite
  • Changes in weight

CBD interacts with certain medications also. For example, it can increase the level of Coumadin (a blood thinner medication) in your blood.

Grapefruit has a similar effect, which explains why many medication guides direct patients to avoid consuming grapefruit or grapefruit juice.

The reason for this is because both grapefruit and CBD contain enzymes that are important for how successfully drugs metabolize in your body.

So the crucial point to remember is that before you start to use CBD oil, make sure you discuss it with your doctor to ensure it’s safe to mix with your existing prescriptions.

Although there appears to be no significant research that has been undertaken on how CBD oil affects the kidneys, there has been a study performed on the liver.

The results of this study did show that CBD oil had the potential to cause toxicity of the liver.

However, it’s important to note that the mice in the study had been force-fed considerably large doses of oil.

Can CBD oil actively assist in kidney diseases?

Cannabis and its derivatives, such as CBD, do not seem to affect kidney function in healthy people.

New research appears to have promising potential when used topically for the treatment of uremic pruritus (chronic kidney disease).

Cannabis may have medicinal benefits for treating symptoms of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. It may also be used to help relieve pain, reducing the need for addictive medications, such as opioids.

CBD oil has not been shown to cure or prevent chronic kidney disease, but it may relieve some of the symptoms of CKD.

According to the above research, renal function should be closely monitored in those with CKD, and the lowest effective doses of CBD oil should be used.

According to nurse Lisa Miller Hedin BSN, RN, the potential for cannabis-related products such as CBD oil has been misunderstood by medics and others.

Speaking at The American Nephrology Nurses Association’s National Symposium recently, she told attendees that it has great potential for treating patients with chronic kidney disease.

“…As nurses, we need to be responsible and find out if our patients are taking it and how we can treat them safely.”

Nurse Lisa Miller Hedin BSN, RN

Dosage and preparation – CBD oil side effects on kidneys

The above information does seem to lead to the fact that CBD may help treat those with kidney disease. However, one of the main issues with taking CBD oil is that there are currently no official guidelines for the appropriate use of CBD oil.

CBD oil is usually delivered sublingually, which is more easily understood as under the tongue.

Most oils are sold in 30-milliliter (mL) bottles with a dropper cap. There is currently no known ‘correct’ dose of CBD oil.

The general rule of thumb is to start with a dose of 10-20 mg a day for a week to see how well it is tolerated. Gradually increase your dose each week until you it begins to have the desired effect.

The World Health Organization reported that clinical research studies on CBD typically used dosages between 100 and 800 milligrams per day.

The difficult part for those looking to use CBD oil for kidney problems is calculating the exact amount of CBD per milliliter of oil. This makes any CBD oil side effects on kidneys harder to ascertain.

It is important to note here that some tinctures will have different concentrations. For example, one tincture may have 1,500 mg per 30 mL, while others have 3,000 mg per mL or more.

Due to the uncertainty of doses, patients are strongly recommended to talk to their doctor and follow their instructions for how much CBD oil they should be taking.

Further CBD help

We hope this has given you some more insight into CBD oil side effects on kidneys. For questions about your specific conditions and treatment options, always consult your doctor.

Here are more articles to help you understand more about CBD and the specifics surrounding it:

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CBD and Kidney Disease: Benefits, Dosage, and Side Effects

The kidneys are an essential organ that filters the blood and removes toxins from our bodies. In order for our kidneys to function properly, they need a steady supply of water and nutrients. When the kidneys don’t receive these substances, complications like kidney disease may happen.

With more and more people becoming aware of the effects of kidney disease on the human body, studies are now being conducted to find possible treatments for it.

And one substance that researchers find promising is CBD oil. A non-psychoactive cannabinoid derived from hemp plants, CBD may be beneficial in treating some symptoms associated with kidney diseases, such as inflammation or pain.

This blog post will explore how CBD oil works against kidney disease and what research has been done on this topic so far.

What Is Kidney Disease?

Kidney disease, also known as kidney failure, is a condition where the kidneys are not able to remove waste and excess water from the body. When a person is diagnosed with kidney disease, high levels of fluid, electrolytes, or toxins may be found in the blood, leading to other health conditions, like heart problems, anemia, bone loss, and other serious health consequences.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, this debilitating condition affects about 37 million people in the United States alone. And what’s worse is that about 90% of those with this condition don’t even know they have it.

Kidney disease may manifest in various forms. But the most common ones are:

  • Chronic Kidney Disease – It is a long-term condition that is commonly caused by high blood pressure. When there is high blood pressure in the kidneys, more pressure is also asserted on the glomeruli – the tiny blood vessels found in the kidneys where blood is filtered and cleaned. Increased pressure on these vessels may result in damage to the kidneys and a decline in kidney function.
  • Glomerulonephritis – This condition is a result of inflammation in the glomeruli. It is caused by congenital defects and improper use of drugs, but it can also be caused by infections. Unlike other forms of kidney disease, it usually gets better on its own.
  • Urinary Tract Infection – This is a form of kidney disease caused by a bacterial infection in the urinary system. While it can be easily treated, if ignored for long periods, it can spread to the kidneys and result in kidney failure.
  • Kidney Stones – Another common kidney problem, kidney stones form when minerals in the blood start to crystallize in the kidneys, forming stone-like solid masses. These stones can be released during urination, but the process of releasing them can be painful.

Treatment for kidney disease may include dialysis (where your blood is filtered and cleaned outside of your body using a machine), peritoneal dialysis (where fluids move through your abdomen), erythropoietin therapy (a medication that stimulates red cells production), or transplantation surgery.

What Causes Kidney Disease?

The kidneys help regulate the blood pressure and filter waste materials that enter the bloodstream. Our kidneys are quite precise in eliminating waste as they filter on a microscopic level. The functional unit that is responsible for all the filtration processes is called the nephron.

In every kidney, about 1 million nephrons work, pulling foreign compounds out from the bloodstream. In a day, around 180 liters of blood is being filtered by the kidneys.

While these nephrons do a great job at filtering unwanted foreign compounds, they are generally very sensitive. They can easily get damaged if toxic compounds are detected in the blood. For instance, in the case of a diabetic, blood sugar levels are often high, and the tissues in their bodies can easily get damaged, including the very sensitive nephrons.

When these nephrons become damaged, more strain is added onto the remaining nephrons, further putting them at risk of more damage.

What Are the Symptoms of Kidney Disease?

It’s not always easy to identify what kidney disease can do to you. In fact, it is so hard because the symptoms are often vague and might seem unrelated. There are a few telltale signs, however, that indicate a problem. Some are:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Chronic pain
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Muscle cramps
  • Sleep problems
  • Foamy urine
  • Hypertension
  • Darkened skin
  • Lack of concentration
  • Swelling in the wrists or abdomen
  • Swelling of ankles and feet

How to Diagnose Kidney Disease

Kidney disease is diagnosed by performing different tests and scans. To test whether the kidneys are normal or not, the hallmark sign, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is used. This metric refers to the volume of fluid that can pass through the kidney. If the value is low, it means that the kidneys are not fully functioning.

Aside from checking the eGFR values, the common procedures and tests that are generally performed to know the severity of kidney disease include:

  • Blood Test – Waste product levels in the blood are examined in this test.
  • Imaging Test – Doctors may use ultrasound devices to check the size and structure of a patient’s kidneys.
  • Urine Test – Urine samples are often needed to check if there are abnormalities in your urine that can lead to chronic kidney failure.
  • Kidney Biopsy – In this test, a sample of kidney tissue may be asked from the patient. The process may involve the use of local anesthesia using a long, thin needle that is inserted through the skin and into the kidney.

CBD: A Potential Treatment Option for Kidney Disease

The patient population for kidney disease is large. If you are one of these patients or you happen to know one, it’s quite a relief to know other treatment options are being studied today that may be able to help slow or even reverse the disease.

One of these treatments involves the use of CBD oil as an alternative form of medication for kidney disease symptoms like pain and inflammation. Though research on this subject is still at preliminary stages, there is a lot of potential for this treatment.

Let’s find out more about how CBD can potentially help with kidney disease in the succeeding sections.

Can CBD Oil Really Help with Kidney Disease?

Once the kidneys fail, it means that they have already stopped working and that the person may need a kidney transplant or regular dialysis to survive. Although these treatment options are beneficial for survival, they, too, have adverse side effects.

At this point, many of you may ask: what about CBD oil for kidney disease? To date, there are no studies that can attest to the effect of using CBD oil on our kidney health. But there are limited published studies that focus on the effects of cannabis on kidneys.

According to one study, cannabis may have promising effects when used as a treatment for the symptoms of advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease. Based on the study, some patients with CKD have used CBD to treat chronic symptoms like nausea, anorexia, anxiety, and pain. It is worth noting, though, that CBD oil has not been proven to prevent or treat chronic kidney disease itself.

Is It Safe for Patients with Kidney Disease to Use CBD?

Though more tests need to be done, CBD is generally considered a relatively benign substance. No reports have been recorded about the dangers that CBD poses among patients with kidney disease as well.

CBD is just released from the body via the fecal route, and it does not even involve so much kidney interaction. The only side effects known to be associated with CBD use are diarrhea, loss of appetite, to name a few.

CBD vs. Kidney Disease Symptoms

Kidney disease has no established cure. Therefore, the treatment often focuses on the symptoms. This is where CBD comes into the picture.

Based on recent medical studies, the possible health benefits of CBD may overlap with the symptoms of kidney disease in some ways. Let’s discuss some of them below.

Reduced Inflammation

Some forms of kidney disease, like pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, lead to kidney inflammation. And while some studies reveal that CBD may have anti-inflammatory properties, they were done on patients with multiple sclerosis. Other studies were performed on rats with sciatic nerve inflammation. This means more studies need to be done to identify the real impact of CBD on kidney inflammation.

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Here’s a more recent study that looked into the potential of CBD for inflammation. Using an animal model, researchers explored if CBD can reduce cytokine storms and treat acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). It was then found that the substance may reduce cytokine storms, protect pulmonary tissues, and promote inflammatory homeostasis.

Pain Management

There’s a lot of pain involved in kidney disease. It could be caused by kidney inflammation, urinary tract infection, or kidney stones. Research shows that CBD has promising abilities to reduce pain caused by arthritis, chronic pain, and surgical incisions. That explains why some are considering this substance as a treatment option, too.

Loss of Appetite

Another common symptom of kidney disease is loss of appetite. When left untreated, it can lead to dangerous weight loss or unwanted weight gain.

In an animal test performed on rats, it was found that CBD may help regulate appetite. The subjects of the study experienced a loss of unwanted body weight. But in any case, this animal test does not translate to human results. Some kidney disease patients, though, have considered CBD as a treatment for their loss of appetite as there are also claims that CBD is a moderate appetite stimulant.

Mood Management

CBD may help boost your body’s anandamide levels once they drop. A study in 2012 found that CBD may enhance the signaling of anandamide – a naturally occurring acid derivative that plays a significant role in mood management, memory, and appetite.

Experts also believe that CBD may have a positive effect on the brain’s serotonin receptors, which are responsible for regulating mood and physiological processes like vomiting.

Now, while there is not enough evidence that shows CBD may boost the brain’s serotonin levels, experts report that it may affect how the brain’s chemical receptors react to the existing serotonin hormones in the system.

Preclinical studies also suggest that CBD may modulate the brain’s GABA levels. GABA plays a role in how humans perceive fear, stress, and anxiety, slowing or blocking nerve signals in the brain. This shows that CBD helps to relieve patients’ anxiety and stress by regulating their moods and emotions.

In the study, mice were exposed to an infection that affected the balance between glutamate and GABA levels. With the introduction of CBD, the glutamate and GABA balance was restored and normalized.

CBD Oil Dosage for Kidney Disease

We’ve mentioned that several studies have been performed to deal with the symptoms of kidney disease. But before you consider using CBD oil for treating them, take note that kidney disease is a serious condition. Therefore, any potential treatment option must first be discussed with a doctor.

The thing with CBD oil is that it can be challenging to find the correct dosage because its components may have varying effects on the human body. And unfortunately, there is no study or research to date that can prove the effectiveness of CBD oil for kidney disease. So far, only animal testing and experiments have been done to explore the effects of CBD on the kidney.

Still, there are people with kidney disease who are using CBD oil along with other lifestyle changes and medications. As for the dosage, they are using existing dosage information from similar conditions like liver disease. These conditions may require higher doses of CBD oil for the effects to show.

In a report by the World Health Organization, it was stated that in clinical trials and research, CBD is generally administered orally in 100 to 800 mg dosage per day. This can be challenging for patients with kidney disease because they need to calculate the exact amount of CBD per milliliter of oil. This becomes even more challenging because CBD oils come in different concentrations.

If you plan to use CBD for kidney disease, we suggest that you begin with a small dose. As your body gets accustomed to it, you will know its effects on your body. By then, you can gradually increase your dosage. Again, because of the uncertainties about the proper dosage, patients are strongly advised to talk to their doctors first.

As a general rule of thumb, it’s best to start with 2–5 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of your body weight.

Summarizing the Health Benefits of CBD Oil for Kidney Disease

Due to the limited treatment options for patients with kidney disease, it’s not surprising why therapeutic alternatives like CBD are in high demand. And despite the lack of research on the use of CBD for kidney disease symptom management, many are willing to take the risk and start experimenting with CBD.

Although CBD is now widely used in various health conditions, its efficacy with kidney disease is still being researched. So, while studies are ongoing, consult with a professional first before you decide to use CBD oil for kidney disease.

What are your thoughts on using CBD oil for kidney disease? Let us know your thoughts in the comments!

References:

  • Kidney disease: The basics. National Kidney Foundation. (2021, May 20). Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/web_kidneybasics_v4.pdf [1]
  • Rein, Joshua L. The nephrologist’s guide to cannabis and cannabinoids, Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: March 2020 – Volume 29 – Issue 2 – p 248-257 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000590 [2]
  • Ho, C., Martinusen, D., & Lo, C. (2019). A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management. Canadian journal of kidney health and disease, 6, 2054358119828391. https://doi.org/10.1177/2054358119828391 [3]
  • Khodadadi, H., Salles, É. L., Jarrahi, A., Chibane, F., Costigliola, V., Yu, J. C., Vaibhav, K., Hess, D. C., Dhandapani, K. M., & Baban, B. (2020). Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNA. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 5(3), 197–201. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2020.0043 [4]
  • Argueta, D. A., Ventura, C. M., Kiven, S., Sagi, V., & Gupta, K. (2020). A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. Frontiers in pharmacology, 11, 561. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00561 [5]
  • Ignatowska-Jankowska, B., Jankowski, M. M., & Swiergiel, A. H. (2011). Cannabidiol decreases body weight gain in rats: involvement of CB2 receptors. Neuroscience letters, 490(1), 82–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.12.031 [6]
  • Leweke, F. M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C. W., Hoyer, C., Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., & Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational psychiatry, 2(3), e94. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2012.15 [7]
  • de Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838 [8]
  • Osborne, A. L., Solowij, N., Babic, I., Lum, J. S., Newell, K. A., Huang, X. F., & Weston-Green, K. (2019). Effect of cannabidiol on endocannabinoid, glutamatergic and GABAergic signalling markers in male offspring of a maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model relevant to schizophrenia. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 95, 109666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.109666 [9]
  • World Health Organization. (2018). CANNABIDIOL (CBD).
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

CBD oil side effects on kidneys

The side effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) oil reported so far include dry mouth, fatigue, change in appetite, and nausea. But, does CBD oil cause side effects on kidneys? Let us review in this post.

To precisely understand the gravity of the situation, let us begin with some background facts about kidney disease.

  • 10% of people worldwide are affected by Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). And the number of deaths is increasing each year due to a lack of access to affordable treatment.
  • CKD was ranked 18th in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.
  • CKD is progressively getting identified as a global health problem.
  • The WHO reports that kidney diseases increase the risks of five other complications that include diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, HIV, and malaria.
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These alarming facts indicate the pressing need for spreading primary awareness and information about chronic kidney disease among susceptible populations that could help prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment.

What is chronic kidney disease? (CKD)

Let us quickly recall the vital functions performed by the kidneys.

  • Kidneys are responsible for producing varieties of hormones that include vitamin D, erythropoietin (EPO), calcitriol, and renin.
  • Regulate the flow of body fluids, water, minerals, electrolytes, chemicals, etc.
  • Removal and excretion of excess fluids, toxins, and waste products.

When the kidneys are no longer able to carry out these functions, they create lasting damage over time eventually causing chronic kidney disease. (CKD)

If this damage is irreversible, they stop functioning and result in Kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage, dialysis or kidney transplant are the only options to support affected patients to stay alive.

Equally important to note that CKD leads to other associated health conditions that affect the blood vessels, heart, nerves, and bones.

Common causes of kidney disease

Diabetes and high blood pressure are the leading causes of kidney failure cases.

Some of the other causes that lead to kidney failure are:

  • Glomerulonephritis(GN): Glomeruli are tiny clusters of looping blood vessels that filter the blood sent to the kidneys. Damage or inflammation in the glomeruli leads to a leak of proteins and red blood cells through the urine. The excretion process of the kidneys also gets obstructed in such a condition. Hence, waste begins to build up in the blood leading to kidney failure. Infection, toxic drugs, diabetic nephropathy, or lupus are possible causes that lead to such a condition.
  • IgA Nephropathy another form of glomerular disease.
  • Systemic sclerosis is a condition that arises due to the overproduction of proteins and collagen in various tissues.
  • Genetic reasons that cause polycystic kidney disease.
  • Severe urinary tract infection.
  • Prostate enlargement.
  • Hypertension.
  • Goodpasture Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the lungs and kidneys. is another cause that leads to kidney disease. In this condition, the protein content becomes very high in the urine but very low in the blood, accompanied by other complications like high cholesterol, swelling in feet, hands, etc. Although not a disease in itself, it may occur along with other conditions.
  • Infection, liver damage or elevated liver enzymes, low blood pressure, blockage in the bladder, injury, or prolonged sickness, and hospitalization could cause a sudden renal failure leading to Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
  • Other generic causes include old age, family history, heart disease, ethnicity, etc.

Side effects of CBD oil and Symptoms of kidney diseases – An analogy

General symptoms of kidney diseases.

  • External Itching, Renal Itching or Rash, Uremic pruritus ( chronic itching accompanied by pain)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Short breath
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Diarrhea
  • Sexual dysfunction is common in CKD and ESRD

Now let us look at some of the side effects of Cannabidiol(CBD)

  • A 2011 study 1 points out that some studies report that CBD can induce side effects like blocking the liver to metabolize drugs, decreased fertilization capacity, decreased hepatic drug metabolism, decreased activities of drug transporting mechanism, and decreased cell viability.
  • References from a 2019 study 2 report excessive sleepiness, sedation and lethargy, fatigue, decreased appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

We see similarities between the side effects of CBD and the symptoms of kidney disease. That does prompt us to inquire further. Let us discuss.

Some takeaways from the same 2019 study 3 are:

  • Since the Intraperitoneal ( IP) and Intravenous (IV) routes provided higher bioavailability, they increased the adverse effects and toxicity of CBD. However, the occurrence of such situations is likely in patients receiving treatment for epilepsies and psychiatric disorders.
  • Further research is needed to investigate the after-effects of chronic administration of CBD on hormones, enzymes, interactions with other drugs, drug transporters, and toxicity that affects the DNA.
  • Excessive sleepiness and sedative effects of CBD are dose-dependent. In most cases, they occur when administered along with other anti-epileptic drugs, central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and alcohol.
  • Broad dosage range and self-medication also influence the adverse side effects of CBD. The study also points to the variability in CBD products available in the form of tablets, capsules, sprays, e-liquids, and oils as a risk that adds to its adverse effects.

A recent study 4 indicates that currently available research related to cannabis is biased towards recreational cannabis.

In the same lines, synthetic cannabinoids (developed for research purposes) are now turning out to be dangerous recreational drugs. Moreover, synthetic cannabinoids do not get detected on standard blood and urine tests. Hence could mislead nephrologists treating patients with AKI.

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is occasionally associated with prerenal AKI.

Other takeaways from this study:

  • CBD may increase tacrolimus levels. But a small case study showed that a low dose of CBD administered for chronic pain in kidney transplant patients did not change tacrolimus levels.

( Tacrolimus test or TAC, is conducted to assess the amount of the drug in the blood to make sure if it has reached a therapeutic level and is below the toxic level. )

Reference from the 2017 study 5 : TAC is an immunosuppressant and used in patients with heart, liver, kidney, or pancreas transplantation.

Adding to this inference, another study 6 reports the importance of TAC in immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation. At the same time also points out the increased risk of post-transplant diabetes.

  • THC and CBD may interact with the metabolism of prescription medications.
  • At a dose of 200mg of oral CBD, maximum plasma concentration showed no change.
  • High doses of CBD could increase liver enzymes.
  • There is no evidence so far to suggest that CBD has any adverse effect on kidney function.
  • If CKD patients used cannabis, they should use the lowest dose and avoid the smoking route to evade pulmonary complications.

Potential effects of CBD on kidneys: what does the research say?

  • The 2017 study 7 points out the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors are found in kidneys and could be activated by cannabis ingredients. But considering the type of kidney disease and state of injury, experimental studies show that its effects on kidneys could be detrimental and beneficial.
  • Contrary to the above, a 2019 study 8 reports that although CB1 and CB2 are expressed in the kidneys, the effects of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the kidneys are not yet well understood.
  • But the study indicates that preliminary investigations on synthetic cannabinoids used as topicals in uremic pruritus in ESRD are promising.
  • When it comes to symptoms of kidney diseases, neuropathic pain is highly relevant in patients with CKD. But, the study concludes that the role of cannabis in symptom management for CKD is limited. It is worth recalling here, the post CBD for back pain highlights the role of topical application of CBD, and its potential to block nociceptive and neuropathic pain.
  • However, 4 the 2020 study reports that patients with progressive CKD may be more inclined to use medical cannabis for symptom management. It also adds that the National Academies concluded the existence of valuable evidence for the use of cannabis and cannabinoids to treat chronic pain.

Kidney disease and COVID 19

While the world is still fighting the novel coronavirus, research on it is in swift progress. The magnitude of the epidemic has jolted the medical research fraternity across the globe.

In this scenario, a new report reveals that people hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment are at a higher risk of developing Acute Kidney Injury(AKI). Kidney tubular injury, increased blood clotting, kidney infections are some of the after-effects of COVID-19, adds the report. Moreover, patients who have recovered from COVID-19 related AKI continue to show lowered kidney functions.

Therefore, the study recommends such patients get regular consultations from kidney specialists.

What are the simple lab tests to detect kidney functions?

Kidney diseases are common, painful but they can be treated with early diagnosis. Simple urine and blood tests can help us check our kidney functions.

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